Communication skills – CV, Interview, Business letter



Course Introduction and Description of Lecture Plan

As the table above indicates, the course contents are distributed over twelve modules.
Each module consists a minimum of one to a maximum of five lectures, and in total, the
twelve modules amount to forty lectures.

The focus of this course is on communication
skills, which cover the four major language skills, namely, reading, writing, listening,
and speaking. In Module I, I talk about Introduction to Communication and the Need for

Effective Communication. In the following module, Module II, I talk about Barriers to
Communication and Overcoming Measures to these Barriers to Communication. You
will come to know of those barriers and obstacles, which actually cause impediments to
effective communication. In Module III, after introducing you to the operative principles
communication, its effectiveness, and then various associated concepts on overcoming
the barriers to communication,

I will be focusing on Non-Verbal Communication with
detailed descriptions of Body Language. This module highlights the soft skills relevant
for performing well in professional activities like group discussion and interviews.
Module IV deals with Listening Skills and answers in detail the following questions: Why
do we need listening skills? How to enhance our listening skills? How to be a better
listener? How to be an active listener?

#Communication#effective#communication#communication skills#soft skills#English skills#Barriers to Communication#Communication Strategies#Miscommunication#Non-verbal communication#Listening Skills#Active Listening# Letter-Writing#Job application letter#Bio-Data# CV, Resume#Report Writing#Group Discussion#Interview Skills#Netiquette#Oral Presentation#Inter-cultural communication#Cross cultural communication#Common Errors#Public Speaking, good communicator

Business English Communication Prof. Aysha Iqbal Viswamohan Department of Humanities & Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture – 01 Reading Comprehension Welcome friends to the first lecture of this course Business English Communication. I am sure that many of you are interested to know what is business English some of you must be having your courses a specifically in business English some of you must be just interested and want to own your skill in particularly in English language and understand how it all works in Business English. So, this is what we cater to this is what the key the (delete key the )

course will cater to. Basically it is meant for those who are doing any degree in business studies, business administration and all the related fields, those who are in the area of commerce or even engineering and technology they may also find it useful because it has a huge component which is geared towards developing your communicative skills. But please remember since the course is called Business English we are going to take examples and various structures and vocabulary that is more relevant to Business English. (Refer Slide Time: 01:43) In today’s class we are going to do reading as you know reading has two predominant components, subsets, skimming and scanning. What do we read? We read books we read chapters, we read journal, articles, we also read reports charts diagrams graphs advertisements and try to understand and I analyze what are these. (Refer Slide Time: 01:54) So, we are going to look at how read

ing operates particularly in the domain of business English communication, how to cull out particular details read for specific information etcetera we will also understand how to understand genre. Genre for example, email is a genre letter is a genre all these things are going to do in our subsequent classes. (Refer Slide Time: 02:10) So, various genres of reading, various genres of writing etcetera that is going to be a part of this course. We will also see how we understand the key details from the title itself. So, this is understanding the title if you are not able to see my handwriting very clearly let me read it out to you understanding the title and from the title deriving the key details. The objective of the cost has already mentioned is or particularly not the cost, but the reading module is to help you read better. Please understand that we are going to do a lot of reading not just reading efficiently, but also more quickly for

effective reading of English text we need to employ the same skills that help us in culling out arguments identifying relevant details and otherwise overall improve our proficiency in this context. So, reading for context is also something that we are going to do. While approaching the text, now what is a text? As I showed you here an article is a text report is a text. So, whatever is you will look at becomes a text whatever is the written material in front of you becomes a text ask yourself why am I reading what is it all about what is the context of the text, what is the text talking about, what are the key argument. See in this kind of reading the sign

al markers are given very clearly the signal words, firstly, secondly; however, you know. So, thus few sign post of the English language they denote how to carry on with our reading. (Refer Slide Time: 04:30) So, remember these words sign postings, first, second, to begin with, firstly, secondly, to begin with these are the sign posts that tell us that the direction in which the writing is going. So, what is the text talking about and how are we, how these arguments are being built up constructed and what is the central idea. See these are all very basic things, but as we grow up in our academics we forget the basics. So, please revise the basics what is the central idea always ask the central idea of this passage what is it talking about, is there a new idea fresh idea or going back to the same earlier idea. So, this is how we look at it. Now, before I show you some actual passages please look at the slide here and this is all about understanding the structure of your text. (Refer Slide Time: 05:42) Things to look out for in the text your reading; so first is paragraph as I told you just now how many but before that you have the introduction to the book or chapter or article and before that you have the title. So, you have the title, you have

introduction to the book or to the chapter or the article when you have your paragraphs, you have chapters, if there is any data or table or other information then that is also there and at the end you have conclusion. So, title begins conclusion is the end in between you have all these things. You have an exercise for example, pick any of the text given in the appendix and identify its structure with the help of the indicators discussed before. So, you look at these things. Paragraph introduction, title and

pick a text of this is your exercise please note down your exercise this is just a warm up or pick up any of the text given, not in the appendix here, but a in your text book or anything that you are reading and try to identify these elements – where is the title, where is the introduction, how are the paragraphs, how are the chapters if any how is the conclusion done. This is your warm up exercise. Now some of the reading techniques as I just told about one is first, first thing first understanding the title. Title holds the key to the entire text or passage, it is mostly a possible to understand or at least decipher the meaning gain, the meaning of the text from the title. It is not creative writing they are not going to mislead you, title is very matter of fact in business English and in technical English. For example, if you come across something like Facebook raises 100 million dollars from so and so fund then this means that you are the text is going to be all abou

t fundraising and facebook how it has done that, as simple as that. You should also remember this another aspect to write to your reading or any kind of communication it could be formal, informal and somewhere in between semi formal. For a formal passage pay attention to the jargon, the register and the terms it requires close careful reading. For an informal passage a general understanding of the text would be sufficient as well. Always understand the key points of the text. So, for example, you may often come across the objective the aim of this figure so and so is trying to show us that. So, pay attention to these terms. When this summaries the data, summaries the information; that means, that you have to summaries. Introduce these, so you, that means, you have to bring and along an introd

ctory passage to our sentence to their summaries, means culling out the entire information in one paragraph. Look at the vocabulary the words that are given the particular lexical phrases. So, in good reading always pay attention to lexical phrases if it is summarizing then you have to summarize something. (Refer Slide Time: 09:45) Key word means you have to give one keyword central idea is one central idea there cannot be several central ideas. Keywords could be more than one, but central idea is central idea. Look at these very specific kinds of lexical phrases. Skimming and scanning now when we scan, when we scan a paragraph for a comprehensive understanding. For example, what do we look for when we skim and what do we look for when we scan, we scan for particular information we skim for a general idea remember these things. Another idea or another tip which is very important when we do reading is to understand the genre, what is gen

re and why is it important? Genre helps us in identifying the category of the text and when we know the category of the text we are able to identify or predict some of the content and language that can be expected in a text like that. It helps us identify certain ways of reading them. So, therefore, it is important to understand genre. So, so much for a very brief overview of what a reading module and tales, let us look at the first example here. (Refer Slide Time: 11:39) Formal report, see how it is lucid, see how things or how headings are used to separate sections, I am not going to read out the entire report for you, but look at the title: The internet of things, making sense of the next mega-trend. I have given you the reference also at the bottom. Look at the subheadings 28 billion reasons to care and the train is leaving the station, lots of room to participate, benchmarking the future, focus enablers platforms and industrials. What are we doing here? Sub

eadings separate sections and focus of the argument in each paragraph, so this is how you read. And please remember for any kind of a text that tests your understanding of business English, they will always be subheadings like these. This is not creative writing, this is not an argumentative essay you will come across in Business English; Business English has its own style and format and this is how it works. (Refer Slide Time: 13:12) Look at this now another example it is called info graphic automation that bring

s us closer towards stakeholders and look at the way I am not going to into the details of this, but look at the way how it has been colour coded and each colour suggests a different idea align with company core values empower workers govern automation improve cyber security. Colour coding is done to help us understand the information otherwise it would be too much, too many details here, but this is the way in business English works the graphs works the code, the shade, the colour and that is how you are supposed to that is the way you are supposed to identify and distinguish each detail each element each feature. Let us look at this one, how to

understand formal and informal situations. (Refer Slide Time: 14:21) Formal Business English and some phrases: 3 weeks ago we had to this is informal, our companies on the way to success not a long while back we were nothing globally this is quite informal. And formal first and foremost, figure 9.2 hard to isolate factor A from factor B. So, why are we doing all this? To understand the level of formality implicit in a text, the language the lexical phrases are the key. Look at the exercise here now and we are going to d

o some questions based on it. (Refer Slide Time: 15:06) Identify the type of the follow

ing text. ‘The new centre, Amazon’s biggest in India, will improve the companies capabilities to provide one-day and two-day deliveries on a wide range of products, Akhil Saxena, a vice president for India customer fulfillment, at Amazon India said in a press release on September 7th. Telangana has more than 10,000 sellers, and the selection they offer on Amazon’s marketplace for immediate delivery has grown more than 120 percent this year as compared to last year, Saxena added. Increasing its fulfillment centres with its state-of-the-art infrastructure, helps Amazon boost the ‘Fulfillment-By-Amazon’ delivery option, which the company sees as its goals-standard service. When using it, sellers across India send the products Amazon’s warehouses and once an order is placed, Amazon picks, packs and

ships the order to the customer provides customer service and manages returns on behalf of the sellers. (Refer Slide Time: 16:20) Continue with the same article: Orders fulfilled by Amazon are eligible for cash on delivery, guaranteed next-day, same-day, morning, and Sunday deliveries. With some products, such as popular smartphones, Amazon offers release-day deliver

ies as well. Sellers always have the flexibility to choose the number of products they want to have fulfilled by Amazon and scale according to their business requirements, the company sent in its September 7 press release and this is the reference to the article. So, what was your question? What is the genre of the text? Obviously, it is a formal text, so your answer is formal. Wh

y formal? Look at the tone, is it very chatty, is it saying you will receive or hey let u

s see this is the way it is done, it is not, it is being very formal, very impersonal, very professional. It is a press release, hence it is undoubtedly a formal passage. It is not a semi formal, it is not an informal, but it is a formal passage. So, that is what your supposes, it was just kind of a brief introduction to identifying the tone. Remember how importance is given to facts, figures, numbers, Telangana is more than 10,000 sellers, 120 percent growth, this year Saxena added. So, you know someone who is in position of authority and responsibility is quoted and sighted and numbers are given facts and figures and all are illustrations are given. So, what does, what do all these things mean. It means that it is a very serious, very formal, very professional kind of a passage. Now, another just to reinforce what is skimming and scanning. Remember you will be finding several passages to test a skimming and scanning abilities. Skimming remember yo

u have to go through the whole text quickly in order to work out the key topic main ideas etcetera scanning is reading quickly to identify a particular piece of information such as a date or time or place or a name or a fact, there is a differences skimming is mainly for the main idea and key topic. Look at the example here. (Refer Slide Time: 19:12) Now, what am I asking you to do look at the opening and closing paragraph of an article. Let us talk about a supplemental income. Look at the slide here. There has b

een a lot of discussion on universal basic income UBI in both developed and developing countries. The primary objective is to enable every citizen to have a certain minimum income. The term ‘universal’ is meant to connote that the minimum or basic income will be provided to everyone irrespective of whatever their current income is. The adoption of a universal basic income can impose a burden on the fisc which is well beyond the capabilities of most developing countries including India. In discussing the applicability of the concept of basic income to India, three questions arise. The first is whether it should be ‘universal’ or ‘restricted’; the second is what the level of minimum income is and how this is to be determined; and the third is about the financing mechanism for implementing such a scheme. So, look at the way the introduction has been opening has been done and also notice the complex sentences especially the last one, the first is t

he second and the third. So, you do not find small sentences here you find three sentences embedded in one. Some of you want me for my earlier courses some of you have requested that in between it is a good idea to use our own languages also I would try to incorporate Hindi as and when possible. So, [FL] sentence [FL]. So, this is one way of writing good English [FL]. Look at the next slide. (Refer Slide Time: 22:36) Please look at the slide here now. In fact, the concept of a basic income must be turned essentially into a

supplemental income the, what are we looking at here? Conclusion; such scheme will be feasible provided we restrict the beneficiary beneficiaries to groups which can be easily identified. This restriction essentially comes from fiscal compulsions. Regarding finances, it is not easy to remove all implicit subsidies. The design for financing the scheme has to be viewed in a more pragmatic way. Restricting the physical burden to 1.5 to 2 percent of GDP seems desirable and feasible. Half of this can come from phasing out some of the existing expenditures while the other half can come by raising fresh revenue. Lastly, the proposal here first only to the income supple

ment that can be provided by the Central Government, similar efforts can be made by the respective State Governments if they so desire. [FL]. Look at the last sentence and look at the way the word lastly, it is a signal, it is signifying, it is a

sign post that it is coming to an end, so lastly, so therefore, lastly. (Refer Slide Time: 24:07) Now, here is the question that, these are your questions which are based on this particular slide that we have just seen. Look at slide here exercise. Read the extract from the report published in The Hindu, in the previous slide and decide which of the following statements are true or false: a, the author are used for a restrictive view of UBI and wants to turn it into a supplemental income; b, designing finance has to be viewed in a more idealize way; c, the term ‘universal’ is meant to connote that the minimum or basic income will be provided to everyone irrespective of whatever their current income is. So, you have to true or false for these a b c. And the second question is identify the main points of the whole report. So, please

look at it and answer. I will give you one moment to think over. So, first is answer is both options a and c are true, it is directly identified from the article. Option b is wrong or false the report mentions the designing finals needs to be done in a pragmatic way. Pragmatic way means dealing with things realistically and with practical considerations, it is not idealistic, pragmatic opposite idealistic. So, therefore, options a and c are correct. And main points of the whole report what are we are expected to do, identify the main

point of the reports, so remember how the headline summarizes the whole argument of the article and that is what I said in the at the beginning [FL]. It also helps to identify the authors and their areas of the expertise so look at who the authors are. And you have to understand the introductory lines that hold the key to what the passage wants to tell you about UBI, first paragraph itself tells you UBI what is it what is UBI and the three factors to consider in talking about its implementation. And the concludin

g paragraph repeats for the authors think about such a step. And coming to the last point today that I wanted to discuss before I wind up the very first class of reading comprehension module you have to read the entire passage carefully and then attempt the questions, I cannot stress enough of that. [FL]. You have to always answer a pick the correct answer which you think i

s the most appropriate and pay attention to charts figures numbers, [FL], these things are given extremely or extreme significance, so you have to understand and also always look out for the catch phrases while reading. So, I am going to do many more exercises in our subsequent classes as well, but that is all for the first class. Thank you very much.

Business English Communication Prof. Aysha Iqbal Viswamohan Department of Humanities & Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture – 02 Reading Comprehension Welcome back friends. So, let us look at the exercise here that is where, that is the point where we stopped last time. (Refer Slide Time: 00:21) So, look at this fresh exercise read the following passage and answer the following. According to the biography of Steve Jobs, the name was conceived by jobs aft

er he returned from apple farm. He apparently thought the name sounded “fun, spirited and not intimidating.” The name also likely benefited by beginning with an A, which meant it would be nearer the front of any listings. There are other theories about the meaning behind the name Apple. The idea that it was named as because Newton w

as inspired when an apple fell out of a tree hitting him on the head, is backed up by the fact that the original apple logo was rather complicated illustration of Newton sitting under a tree. Later the company settled on the bite out of an Apple design for Apple’s logo – a far simpler logo design. (Refer Slide Time: 01:23) These logos please continue reading, in the next slide – these logos are probably the reason for other theories about the meaning behind the name Apple, with some sug

e by eating a cyanide infused apple. However, according to Rob Janoff, the designer who created the logo, the Turing connection is simply “a wonderful urban legend.” Equally the bite taken out of the apple could represent the story of Adam and Eve from the Old Testament. The idea being that the Apple represents knowledge. Look at the reference and here are your question. (Refer Slide Time: 02:14) According to the article the logo of apple is a reference to a the suicide of Alan Turing, b the story of Adam and Eve, c Steve jobs favourite fruit. Please take a look at this slide and try to understand what is the article telling you and the answer is both a and b – several speculative theories are mentioned in the texts remember, two of which referred to the Alan Turi

ng suicide and the biblical story. The third option; however, it is not mentioned at all the options c is not there at all, so both a and b. Look at the second question, look at the slide here. (Refer Slide Time: 02:58) What is the passage about a the biography of Steve Jobs, b the story of apple, c the name and logo of apple. What is the answer? Answer is c the name and logo of apple, is not a very tricky question. You have to remember that it may be taken from the biography of a Steve Jobs where the passage is definitely not his biography therefore, and the most of the focus is on the name and logo of apple, hence options a and b are not valid. Look at the next slide here again which relates to this particular passage. (Refer Slide Time: 03:40) Find the word in the passage; that means, ‘frighten’ a spirited, b intimidating, c complicated and your answer is b intimidating; to frighten someone is to intimidate someone. Complicated of course, means complex, spirited means full of energy. So, so much for your warm up for this session, now let us look at this particular chart slide. (Refer Slide Time: 04:13) Exercise 1.5: Go through this is the following yeah we are just continuing from the previous lecture. So, please look

at this go through the following figures and passage carefully and answer the questions, look at the figures carefully, what is it about average annual change in mean family income 1950 to 2010. So, 60 years data by quintile and for the top 5 percent you have you are given some shades you are all aware of the horizontal and vertical axis and look at what these shades denote and look at the way it is done. Please look at the slide here. (Refer Slide Time: 04:59) “Here is the arc it captures: in the immediate post war period, America’s rapid growth favored the middle and lower classed. The poorest fifth of all households, in fact, fared best. Then in the 1970s, amid two oil crises and awful inflation, things ground to a halt the country backed off the postwar, central left consensus, captured by Richard Nixon’s comment that “we are all Keynesians now”, and tried Reaganism instead. We cut taxes we cut taxes. Technology and competition from abroad started whittling away at blue collar jobs and pay. The financial markets took off. And so when growth returned, it favored the investment class the top 20 percent and especially the top and especially the top 5 percent and though it is not on this chart, the top 1

percent more than anybody. And then it all fell apart. The aughts were a lost decade for families, and it is not clear how much better they will fare in the next. None of this is new history. But it is helpful to have a crisp layout of what’s changed”. (Refer Slide Time: 06:25) Now look at the questions here, which of the following are true: a, no evidence for negative growth can be found in the economy; b, throughout the years the economy has been stable and has favoured the upper classes; post 1970s there was the shift in the American economy from Keynesian to Raeganism, which of the following are true. Answer is c. Post 1970s there was a shift it is clearly given in the American economy there was a shift from Keynesian to Reaganism. A, is not correct since the graph clearly shows the negative growth in the period 2000 to 2010, b is not correct the key word here is a stable which cannot be applied to

the state of the American economy, the graph is very clear. If you do not understand these things then please train yourself because if you are expected to appear for these kinds of situations where your texts of graphs and charts and pi diagrams may be tested. Then it is very understand to get a clear cut hold on these things. Remember the entire graph here chart the changes that have marked the economy between 1950 to 2010, c is correct and we also have a phrase there. Let us look at the second slide, second question here. (Refer Slide Time: 07:54) Complete the following sentence according to the context of the passage – The passage c

harts the changes in dash in the dash economy between the years 1950 to 2010. A, Keynesian economics and market; means family income, American; blue collar jobs and financial. Which is the correct choice? The answer is b, mean family income and American. The sentence would does be completed like. The passage charts the changes in mean family income in the American economy between the years 1950 to 2010; that is the way you have to understand a passage. If you insert option a in to the blanks it will read the passage chart the change in Keynesian economics in the market economy between the year so and so and therefore, it cannot be correct. Form here I have just given you a couple of examples and now let me take you to another key area of communication which is called cohesion. (Refer Slide Time: 09:09) Now, most of the text you will

encounter we will have a logical sequence of arguments as we were talking about firstly, secondly, lastly, one important cohesive device is the way a sentence begins this is the sentence which introduces the subject of the text and it usually occurs at the beginning of the text. Remember when you write an email this could be the subject line in a report it could be the abstract. So, that’s the way or text begins. The number of linking devices that ensure the organization of a text, you have to look at the way it is a structured and ordered firstly, secondly, lastly, in addition further more finally. Also contrasting is like however, on the other hand; in comparison nevertheless and then you have drawing conclusions which is like as a result therefore, consequently in conclusion etcetera. So

, the list is endless. Like what we are expecting is that most of you are already familiar with these devices. So, if I talk any Hindi again [FL], (delete) these things you already know and we are just assuming, if you do not know then they the net is full of examples of cohesive markers sign posting. Please look them up and you will understand the organization of text. Now let us do this exercise, exercise 1.6 and look at slide here. (Refer Slide Time: 11:20) In the next slide is an email regarding a comp

any informing a client about the changes in prices of the products. The paragraphs are given in a jumbled order arrange them to give cohesion to the email. Jumbled means they are not logically ordered. So, please rearrange them giving an; your cohesive markers will give you the hints to how to about how to rearrange this. So, look at this example. (Refer Slide Time: 12:01) Dear Sir or Madam, Consequently, with this letter we wanted to send you a formal notice to you that the price of the basket of product is about to change, starting from the 3rd of November 2017. New price for our regular customers will be 500 dollars instead of the

old price of 450 dollars per lot of 50 pieces. All enquiries made before the date will be invoiced at the old price. We hope that the forthcoming price change will not affect your trust in the quality of our services. If you would like to further discuss any of the options and or changes noted in the letter please do contact us. Furthermore, do note that Welcart limited as one of an important clients will continue to benefit with a special price arrangement. Therefore, instead of 500 dollar per lot

of 50 pieces, we will invoice an amount of 475 dollars per lot of 50 pieces. We highly value to have Welcart limited as our customer, and we invest consistent efforts to meet your expectations. We would like to inform you that due to changes in the market, and increased prices of the input of our products, we had to adjust our prices. Regards. (Refer Slide Time: 13:35) Now, this is you

r answer, please look at the slide here. The order of the email would be: d, a, c, b and have done the entire exercise for you. Notice how in paragraph d, if you summarises, you find the summarisation of the content of the mail that there is a change in prices of consequently if the word, that is given that is a sign post. And the ordering of the paragraph a and c can be understood by the hints given by the linking devices used consequently furthermore. And paragraph b hints at a con

clusion of the mail I hope that these price shifts would not affect the client-relationship and ends with asking the client to contact them to. So, therefore, b is the last one that, I hope; we hope that

Slide Time: 14:41) Next one exercise 1.7, arrange the following sentences to make a complete paragraph. While the idea of a single global purchasing culture may appeal to big business, the reality is that the people’s buying habits are determined as much as by culture as by income – and cultures vary greatly from place to place. While some products appear to have global appeal, selling methods and local specifications may vary c

onsiderably. Multinational seeking to exploit the potential of economic globalisation are often advised to ‘think global, act global’. What sells well in Japan may stay on shelves in Canada. Even in the European Union, where trading and political ties are especially strong, there are major difference differen

ces is in customer behavior. And here are your answer. (Refer Slide Time: 15:43) 3- 1- 4- 2- 5 and I have given you the explanation as well. Multinational seeking to exploit the potential of economic globalisation are often advice to ‘think global, act global’. While the idea of a single global purchasing culture may appeal to big business,

the reality is that people’s buying habits are determined as much as by culture as by income and cultures vary greatly from place to place. What sells well in Japan may stay on shelves in Canada. While some products appear to have global appeal, selling methods and locally specifications may vary considerably. Even in the European Union, where trading and political ties are especially strong, there are major differences in customer behavior. Look at the passage again, look at the contrast markers particularly while, while even etcetera and they give you a kind of flow to the reading. (Refer Slide Time: 16:59) So, what is then reading? What have we been doing so far? We have been approaching a text [FL] approach [FL] how to approach a text, how to identify. [FL] text [FL] h

ow to identify the different kinds of text the genres and the various techniques as you know clear by cohesion, cohesive markers are one of the techniques. So, this is what we have been doing so far. So, I just thought that while we are doing and while I approach another text you should see ex

actly what we are doing. So, we have been looking at some passages, some descriptions, some graphs and charts, and emails, jumbled word, jumbled passages, and those are our texts. So, this is what we have been looking different kinds of text and what are the techniques of reading them. So, let us move on to look at this particular te

xt now. (Refer Slide Time: 18:30) Match the headlines to the newspaper extracts on the right. Look at it. Markets are choppy. What should mutual fund investors do? What goes into creating market indices? Third, Zomato valued at so and billion by Nomura. Forth, Bitcoin goes into a Talespin etcetera. Now, a RBI has been repeatedly cautioning

people about the usage of crypto-currencies, flagging a slew of concerns. Crypto-currencies are also called virtual currencies are created and held electronically. b, but like a few other Indian consumer technology start-ups, its valuation is questioned as market participants argued that competitive pressure and high-cash burn did not support its lofty valuation. Keep looking at it, keep looking at the title, I mean that the headlines where would it go. See also, one may look at equity oriented hybrid funds for bulk investments. Just make sure that you invest for the long haul while investing in equity mutual funds, where are we t

alking about mutual funds. And d, the choice of methodology makes a difference to the performance of the index indices are important for an investor because portfolio performances get measured against these indices. Look at the headlines where you find indices and the answers are 1 is c, 2 is b, 3 is b and 4 is a. You have to remember the queue, remember that most headlines like the ones which are given here I am talking of the content the understanding the headlines thus holds the key. So, remember that when you talk about bitcoin headline number four bitcoin is a sort of digital currency. So, you know that you are talking

about the so called virtual currency. And indices you have already seen that indice is there is already mentioned it some there is a mention. So, you have to read it carefully the key idea is not to panic and think carefully and of course, Zomato relates to the startup, so therefore. So, it is all very clear this one this one was quite easy and therefore, you have to just be more attentive and pay attention. (Refer Slide Time: 21:37) So, what we have just done we have matched the headlines with the content and this is something that you can be asked very often for any of your exams that test your knowledge of Business English and your. So, typical commonsensical kind of a passage. And then rearranging jumbled sentences here the key, we have done it earlier also the key is that you should be

able to understand the linking words and the cohesive devices so that is how you rearrange. And then one perennial favourite of a examiners as far as reading comprehension is concerned is giving title so that identify the key idea the central idea of a particular passage. So, this is something that you should be attentive to remember that you (delet

e) reading is a lifelong process and you have to read a lot in order to master it. Now, look at the next slide and answer. (Refer Slide Time: 22:38) Read the newspaper headlines and the extract and answer if the following are true or false. The advice is to invest for the short term in the equity mutual funds where while markets are choppy. Portfolio performances are measured by indices that are used as benchmarks. Zomato’s high valuation has not been questioned. Bitcoins are cryptocurr

encies and are held electronically. So, we have already seen that in our earlier passage, so therefore the first one is false. Remember what the passage told us make sure that you invest for the long haul while investing in equity mutual funds. Second one is true of course, and third and fourth at room as well. So, let us look at that portfolio performances are measured by indices that are used as benchmarks yes, it does appear. Zomato

’s high valuation has not been questioned and bitcoins are cryptocurrencies. So, all these are true. Let us look at this one. (Refer Slide Time: 23:51) It is a memo. What is a memo? It is a short form of memorandum. So, answer the following. To, from; this is the way memo works. Subject: Problem with the new office; it comes to the point. The new sa

is that the new computerised order system is not working. We are in the midst of recruiting staff at the moment and have no time at hand to rectify the complaint. I need someone to come over and examine the software. Could you kindly send one of your staff members? This week this is a memo and then this is the way you sign. Signature is always important in a memo. Remember to, from, signature and subject of course, and then the main matter. You do not have to be extremely particular about we have taught to write letters, but memo is different. Nemo is a strictly official it has no time for these in a preliminary norm of talks, so coming straight to the point. (Refer Slide Time: 25:33) Now look at this, this is the exercise. Write the correct questions for these answers. Surat, t

hey are you recruiting staff, someone to come and examine the software, this week. Now what are the questions? So, look at the answers here. (Refer Slide Time: 25:47) First where is the new shop opening? In Surat of course. Why are they busy because of which they are unable to rectify the software problem? What is the requirement of Mr. Rashid? By when does Mr. Rashid want the software to be rectified? So, the answer is week right. So, you have to be able to construct the right question

as well. There could be multiple ways of framing a question depending on how broader or narrow your answer maybe. So, when you find question like this and you have one word or a lengthy expression you have to and as an answer then you have to understand what kind of question you need to frame. Next one, look at the slide here. (Refer Slide Time:

26:47) Exercise in reading short texts. Read the following excerpts and decide which of the options are correct. Philanthropy also can be an important part of the solution set. A century and a quarter ago, Andrew Carnegie was a lonely voice encouraging his wealthy peers to give back substantial portions of the wealth. Today, a growing number of very wealthy people are pledging to do just that. Philanthropy done well not only produces direct benefits for society, it also reduces dynastic wealth. Which is the correct option here? A, there has been an increase in philanthropic activities over the years till today; b Andrew Carnegie was lone

ly; c philanthropic keeps a check on dynastic wealth. Correct answers are a and c, there as an increase in philanthropy and it checks the accumulation of dynastic wealth there is no mention of Andrew Carnegie being a lonely person it is a lonely voice is an expression, hash has a lone

ly voice against injustice which means he she was the only one, she was the only one, the lone voice the lonely, the only persons of the it is a turn of the phrase. But it does not necessarily mean that Andrew Carnegie was lonely, at least we are not told if he was in this passage. So, here that text makes a case for philanthropy taken out of a blog post by bill gates as we have already given in then reference. Let us look at the next one. (Refer Slide Time: 28:28) Please read the text the company will use f

resh issue proceeds for advertising in business promotion activities around rupees so and so, so much and purchase of land for construction of office premises in Chennai this much. Fresh issue money would also be utilised for repayment of overdraft facilities and general corporate purposes. However, the company will not receive any proceeds from t

e offer for sale. So, true and false. The excerpt talks about company losses; b the company will use the proceeds from sales to advertising and buying of office space; company will not receive proceeds f

of public issues of shares of a company which launched its public offer in sometime in 2017 September and this particular company mentioned is a one of the first online match making websites to go public. (Refer Slide Time: 29:48) Next one, please look at it. Yeah absolutely. So, this is the first time. Just the sort of show what we are talking about. So, a couple of key things that are important in having a 3D tunnel network. First of all you have to be able to integrate the entrance and exit of the tunnels seamlessly into the foabric of the city. So, by having an elevator sort of a car skate that is on an elevator, you can integrate the entrances and

s to be able to operate 200 kilometers about 130 miles. So, which one is true or false. A, the person is talking about a 3D tunnel network, there are few restrictions on speed here, the car becomes a roller the skater. Answer, a and b are correct, the car does not become roller skater at all, that is not what we are told and a and b are true of course. Now, l

et us look at this particular slide. (Refer Slide Time: 31:06) You have to reorder or correct order. Musk invested 100 million dollars of his own money into the startup with the object of building a simple, inexpensive and reusable rocket. While SpaceX has already changed the game in the space industry, their biggest smile stone meet still lie ahead. The rocket company plans to re launch a recovered rocket sometime this year. They are scheduled to launch their first crewed mission to the International Space Station in late 2017 or early 2018. SpaceX is founded in June of 2002 by serial entrepreneur Elon Musk. The company is originally bas

ed in El Segundo’s, California, but will be later relocate its headquarters to Hawthorne, California. So, 8 years after its inception, SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket completes it is made in launch. In 2015, SpaceX Falco

n 9 rocket explodes during CRS-7 launch to the international Space Station. The mission ends in catastrophic failure and the loss of the vehicle. This would have been SpaceX’s is third attempt to land on an autonomous drone ship. How do we rearrange this? So, take a moment and look at it carefully. The answer order is 3 1 4 5 2. This is your 3 1 4 5 2, this is sorry this is the order. If you look at the cohesive markers and the way the sentences glide you will be able to get your queue. Also look at the sequence of years that we should know that number 4 follows number 5 because of the sequence of years. Let us now look at thi

s slide. (Refer Slide Time: 33:27) Reading and matching information. Look at the list below. It shows different departments at a retail outlet: a florist, b stationary, c home decor, d women’s clothes and shoes, e restaurant. (Refer Slide Time: 33:44) For the options below decide which department a person should go. Pragya needs to buy a business suite for her upcoming interview. She realizes she needs a folder to keep her certificates. For her preparation, she meets a friend for coffee who has agreed to help her out. To take a break, she decides to check out the wallpaper collection to see if something will suit her bedroom. Her father calls asking

her to pick up some flowers on the way back. So, I will start with the first one women’s clothing, the stationary shop, she meets a friend for coffee who has agreed to help out. So, which one are we going

to look at, the restaurant to take a break she decides to, so this is the home decor section and the last one is a florist. Now, look at the slide here. (Refer Slide Time: 34:44) So, let us look at the article about a publishing company. Bloomsbury produces a wide range of business books and the company dash at least ten new books every year. It has o

ffices all over India, in dash major capital cities. The MD of the company, Sarah Jose, says that Bloomsbury dash a lot of repeat business from customers and good customer loyalty. But analyst still conc

erned dash Bloomsbury’s business strategy. They say that it is not dash profitable business and that it needs to cut costs and increase profits. They dash that Bloomsbury should dash a website for sales and tha

t it dash to sell the books to students. Look at the choices, choose the correct word to fill each gap from a b or c. It tests your grammar also not just vocabulary. (Refer Slide Time: 35:29) And here are your answers you can tally you 1 A, 2 C, 3 C, 4 A, 5 B, 6 B, 7 C, 8 C, 9 B, you can tally and check for yourself how much sense do they make the answers make to you. (Refer Slide Time: 35:41) Thank you very much.

Business English Communication Prof. Aysha Iqbal Viswamohan Department of Humanities & Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Lecture – 03 Reading Comprehension Welcome back and let us start right away. So, look at the first passage as part of your reading comprehension. (Refer Slide Time: 00:23) Essentially India’s going through the sort of demographic transition that many other countries have, except on a far larger scale. The generation in its 50s in China today is the one that has lifted the country from poverty to middle-income status; the generation in its 20s in India today, this vast ocean of sub continental millennials will have to do the same for India. Will they? Can we predict how this transformation will turn out? It is not that easy. For one, India’s demographic transition is odd; It is happened patchily, and in stages. It is easy to see this if you consider not just how many children are being born, but where. India’s overall fertility rate; the number of children born to each women is now 2.6. Yet that conceals vast variations across the country. In urban India, the fertility rate is 1.8; well below what is called the replacement rate needed to keep the population constant. Richer and more developed states in India’s south, and some others like West Bengal and Punjab, have fertility rates similar to those in Northern Europe. Kolkata has a fertility rate of 1.2 lower than Japan’s, which is 1.4. The reference is given here, look at the passage take a moment. (Refer Slide Time: 01:55) And here are your questions; what does demographic transition describe? A; It describes a change

in geography, it describes a change in population or both. (Refer Slide Time: 02:08) Second; According to the article, which city has a fertility rate lesser than that of Japan? a. Kolkata, b. Chennai, c. Mumbai. (Refer Slide Time: 02:17) Next; Find a word in that passage that means the same as change; a; Transition, b; Replacement, c; Subcontinent. So, answers are of course, b; it describes a change in population; demographic is the change in population and the second one is a; of course, Kolkata; fertility rate is lower than Japan and transition is to change in a state of change. (Refer

Slide Time: 02:51) Now look at the next passage; GoDaddy had been known as a domain business, which it was. What Irving saw was that registering a domain was an early step for a rising business. As he put it, GoDaddy was in a unique position in capturing ideas at their earliest point. He pushed the company to make it; incredibly easy for folks to take the next steps in turning those ideas into reality. They lowered barriers to business formation, in some sense democratizing entrepreneurialism. Interestingly, two of the other winners of the CEO Connection’s annual awards

are people; democratizing entrepreneurialism in one way or another. The 2017 Mid-Market Young Leader, Luvleen Sidhu, founded BankMobile, aimed at helping underbanked millennials and middle-income Americans have an affordable, effortless and financially empowering banking experience. The Mid-Market Social impact award winner, Raj Mamodia’s Brillio devotes a meaningful portion of its resources to teaching disruptive technologies to underprivileged children. (Refer Slide Time: 04:09) Here are your questions; first, it was their commitment to this ideology fetched Sidhu and Brillio international recognition; a, mass self-employment, b; democratic entrepreneurialism, c; registering the company’s domain and our

answer is Democratic entrepreneurialism. Answer lies in the sentence that where we are told that interestingly two of the winners of the CEO’s connection and democratizing away entrepreneurship is done in one way or other; so this is b. (Refer Slide Time: 04:48) Next one look at the slide; From the context given above, identify who said the words democratic entrepreneurialism; a, Luvleen Sidhu, Raj Mamodia Brillio, c; Irving and the

answer is Irving, they lowered barriers to business formation and it is said in inverted commas. Now look at the jumbled words here. (Refer Slide Time: 05:20) This is the slide for you; following jumbled sentences and put them in order; so jumbled sentences and words. Resume, be, engaging, your, task, a, making, can; cake, uber, as, is, booking, as, uber, baking, your. So, how do you rearrange them? Making your resume can be an engaging task, booking; where is as baking your cake or baking a cake, baking your uber is easy as baking a cake. Making your resume can be a

very engaging task, so that is the way you have to rearrange. So, let us look at the third passage now. (Refer Slide Time: 06:13) The industry in the UK is broadly made up of three groups; insurance companies, Lloyd’s of London and insurance brokers. The insurance companies and Lloyd’s combined provide a major reinsurance market. London’s importance as an insurance center, as well as its comparative freedom from excessive regulation, has attracted many foreign reinsurance companies and brokers. There are around 850 insurance companies authorized in the UK but

approximately one half of them handle more than 90 percent of company market business. They provide the full range of insurance contracts including life, pensions, permanent health insurance, marine, aviation, fire, accident, motor, travel and household insurance. The insurance companies have a combined premium income of more than 50 billion pounds per year. Lloyd’s is a unique international insurance market. Lloyd’s is the society of underwriters made up of more than 26000 members or names; who as private individuals, accept insurance risks and are liable for

claims to the full extent of their personal wealth; reference is given below. (Refer Slide Time: 07:36) The questions are, let us look at the first question; why has London attracted many foreign reinsurance companies and brokers? A, because it is an insurance centre; b because of its minimal regulation; c, major reinsurance market. (Refer Slide Time: 07:52) Next question look at this, Find a word from the passage that means, the same as; a, Invest in the Lloyd’s syndicates as private individuals. The first one is all the answers are correct; London is also in insurance center a; minimal regulation and it is a major reinsurance market. And the second question; syndicate is the word given his names Lloyd’s consists of some 26000 names, so the answer is names. (Refer Slide Time: 08:30) Let us look at the next slide; Reading Company Profile; how do we look at; a company

profile look at these bullet points. A company profile is a short write-up of a company, usually detailing the story of its inception with other details

as well. Look up any company, any major company whether it is a startup or a new company or a middle level or a very important as well established company; you will always find a story of this company. You have to pay attention look at the second point; the type of business sectors

that the company deals with and make sure you know the following and a profile always comprises the following. Name of the company, Headquarter, Chairman and Business activities what do they do; first is name of course, where is it located? Who is the owner; chairman, I mean the person who is at the highest level and then business activities; what does this company do. I would like you to as a warm up exercise; look up the website of any major Indian company and look at its profile and see; look at the way things are done, sometimes it is given beautifully in a flowchart

way; you know how flowcharts are. So, sometimes it is done in a flowchart manner and sometimes; maybe just in a very descriptive way. So look compare the way companies give the profiles, I am sure it is going to be a very interesting exercise for you and it is a great learning exercise activity as well. (Refer Slide Time: 10:25) Now, let us look at the fourth passage; the MoDo Group is an international company. Its headquarters are in Stockholm, the President and Chief Executive Officer is Bernt Lof. Its main areas of business are fine paper, newsprint and magazine paper and other wood products. Most of MoDo’s production is carried out in Sweden, but the company is present in many European countries and in the United

States. More than 80 percent of the Group’s total sales of 18.4 million Swedish kronor in 1990 came from countries outside Sweden, primarily the European Community. The company has about 12961 employees and here is the reference. (Refer Slide Time: 11:14) Let us look at the profile now; what is the name of the company? Let us look at the questions. So, this is how you should ask and sometimes you maybe ask questions like these; the name of the company, the headquarters business activities, main markets, number of employees and the chairman. (Refer Slide Time: 11:35)

Look at the answers here; first MoDo; it is based in Stockholm, third what does this deal in? Fine paper; news print magazine paper and other wood products, the business is spread in countries outside Sweden; primary the European community and how many employees? 12961 and Chairman means CEO; President who is Bernt Lof. (Refer Slide Time: 12:05) Let us look at the fifth one, fifth passage; the story of Colgate, William Colgate

founded Colgate company in 1806 as a starch, soap and candle business in New York city. For the first 100 years, the company did all his business in the United States. However, in the early 1990s the company began an aggressive expansion program that led to the establishment of Colgate operations in countries throughout Europe, Latin America and the far East. Recently it has setup operations in Turkey, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Eastern Europe and China. Colgate- Palmolive has become a truly Global consumer products company, work 6.6 million dollars and selling in more than 160 countries. Colgate Palmolive’s 5 main sectors of business are; Oral Care, Household Surface Care, fabric care and pets nutrition and Health Care. In

the area of oral care, Colgate- Palmolive is the world leader in toothpaste. Since 1918 the company has increased its share of this market by more than 12 percent to over 40 percent today. (Refer Slide Time: 13:19) Let us look at the questions here which of the following are not business sectors that Colgate Palmolive deals with? A; House hold Surface Care, b; Oral Care, c; Painting and Varnishing.

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